Recently, Sean Leather took up the idea of incremental folds. [1] [2]. At the end of his first article on the topic he made a comment on how this was a useful design pattern and sagely noted the advice of Jeremy Gibbons that design patterns are more effective as programs, while complaining of cut and paste coding issues.

The following attempts to address these concerns.

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Last night, Chung-Chieh Shan posted an example of a pointed-set monad on his blog, which happens to be isomorphic to a non-empty stream monad with a different emphasis.

But, I thought I should point out that the pointed set that he posted also has a comonadic structure, which may be exploited since it is just a variation on the "zipper comonad," a structure that is perhaps more correctly called a "pointing comonad."

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To those that have asked, I'm still alive.

I had to restore the blog database from a backup and so I lost a few posts, including the index for the various recursion schemes entries. Fortunately, before that happened I had replicated the catamorphism post as a knol.

Should I find myself with a copious glut of free time, I shall happily re-scribe and finish the rest, but I've been very busy.

As you may recall, every functor in Haskell is strong, in the sense that if you provided an instance of Monad for that functor the following definition would satisfy the requirements mentioned here:

 
strength :: Functor f => a -> f b -> f (a,b)
strength = fmap . (,)
 

In an earlier post about the cofree comonad and the expression problem, I used a typeclass defining a form of duality that enables you to let two functors annihilate each other, letting one select the path whenever the other offered up multiple options. To have a shared set of conventions with the material in Zipping and Unzipping Functors, I have since remodeled that class slightly:

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I've had a few people ask me questions about Adjunctions since my recent post and a request for some more introductory material, so I figured I would take a couple of short posts to tie Adjunctions to some other concepts.

Representable Functors

A covariant functor $F : \mathcal{C} -> \mathbf{Set}$ is said to be representable by an object $x \in \mathcal{C}$ if it is naturally isomorphic to $\mathbf{Hom}_C(x,-)$.

We can translate that into Haskell, letting $\mathbf{Hask}$ play the role of $\mathbf{Set}$ with:

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This post is a bit of a departure from my recent norm. It contains no category theory whatsoever. None. I promise.

Now that I've bored away the math folks, I'll point out that this also isn't a guide to better horticulture. Great, there goes the rest of you.

Instead, I want to talk about Bloom filters, Bloom joins for distributed databases and some novel extensions to them that let you trade in resources that we have in abundance for ones that are scarce, which I've been using for the last few months and which I have never before seen before in print. Primarily because I guess they have little to do with the strengths of Bloom filters.

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Grant B. asked me to post the derivation for the right and left Kan extension formula used in previous Kan Extension posts (1,2). For that we can turn to the definition of Kan extensions in terms of ends, but first we need to take a couple of steps back to find a way to represent (co)ends in Haskell.

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I want to spend some more time talking about Kan extensions, composition of Kan extensions, and the relationship between a monad and the monad generated by a monad.

But first, I want to take a moment to recall adjunctions and show how they relate to some standard (co)monads, before tying them back to Kan extensions.

Adjunctions 101

An adjunction between categories $\mathcal{C}$ and $\mathcal{D}$ consists of a pair of functors $F : \mathcal{C} -> \mathcal{D}$, and $G : \mathcal{D} -> \mathcal{C}$ and a natural isomorphism:

$\phi : \mathrm{Hom}_\mathcal{D} (F-, =) -> \mathrm{Hom}_\mathcal{C} (-, G=)$

We call $F$ the left adjoint functor, and $G$ the right adjoint functor and $(F,G)$ an adjoint pair, and write this relationship as $F \dashv G$

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I think I may spend a post or two talking about Kan extensions.

They appear to be black magic to Haskell programmers, but as Saunders Mac Lane said in Categories for the Working Mathematician:

All concepts are Kan extensions.

So what is a Kan extension? They come in two forms: right- and left- Kan extensions.

First I'll talk about right Kan extensions, since Haskell programmers have a better intuition for them.

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> import Control.Arrow ((|||),(&&&),left)
> newtype Mu f = InF { outF :: f (Mu f) }
 

I want to talk about a novel recursion scheme that hasn't received a lot of attention from the Haskell community and its even more obscure dual -- which is necessarily more obscure because I believe this is the first time anyone has talked about it.

Jiri Adámek, Stefan Milius and Jiri Velebil have done a lot of work on Elgot algebras. Here I'd like to translate them into Haskell, dualize them, observe that the dual can encode primitive recursion, and provide some observations.

You can kind of think an Elgot algebra as a hylomorphism that cheats.

 
> elgot :: Functor f => (f b -> b) -> (a -> Either b (f a)) -> a -> b
> elgot phi psi = h where h = (id ||| phi . fmap h) . psi
 

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Does anyone know of any work on "forgetful laziness?"

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Ok, I decided to take a step back from my flawed approach in the last post and play with the idea of power series of functors from a different perspective.

I dusted off my copy of Herbert Wilf's generatingfunctionology and switched goals to try to see some well known recursive functors or species as formal power series. It appears that we can pick a few things out about the generating functions of polynomial functors.

As an example:

 
Maybe x = 1 + x
 

Ok. We're done. Thank you very much. I'll be here all week. Try the veal...

For a more serious example, the formal power series for the list [x] is just a geometric series:

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The post below will only compile on a version of GHC >= 6.9, since it uses type families.

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I did some digging and found the universal operations mentioned in the last couple of posts: unzip, unbizip and counzip were referenced as abide${}_F$, abide${}_\dagger$ and coabide${}_F$ -- actually, I was looking for something else, and this fell into my lap.

They were apparently named for a notion defined by Richard Bird back in:

R.S. Bird. Lecture notes on constructive functional programming. In M. Broy, editor, Constructive Methods in Computing Science. International Summer School directed by F.L. Bauer [et al.], Springer Verlag, 1989. NATO Advanced Science Institute Series (Series F: Computer and System Sciences Vol. 55).

The notion can be summed up by defining that two binary operations $\varobar$ and $\varominus$ abide if for all a, b, c, d:

$(a \varominus b) \varobar (c \varominus d) = (a \varobar c) \varominus (b \varobar d)$.

There is a cute pictorial explanation of this idea in Maarten Fokkinga's remarkably readable Ph.D dissertation on p. 20.

The idea appears again on p.88 as part of the famous 'banana split' theorem, and then later on p90 the above names above are given along with the laws:

 
fmap f &&& fmap g = unfzip . fmap (f &&& g)
bimap f g &&& bimap h j = unbizip . bimap (f &&& h) (g &&& j)
fmap f ||| fmap g = fmap (f ||| g) . counfzip
 

That said the cases when the inverse operations exist do not appear to be mentioned in these sources.

Twan van Laarhoven pointed out that fzip from the other day is a close cousin of applicative chosen to be an inverse of the universal construction 'unfzip'.

During that post I also put off talking about the dual of zipping, so I figured I'd bring up the notion of choosing a notion of 'cozipping' by defining it as an inverse to a universally definable notion of 'counzipping'.

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Kefer asked a question in the comments of my post about (co)monadic (co)strength about Uustalu and Vene's ComonadZip class from p157 of The Essence of Dataflow Programming. The class in question is:

 
class Comonad w => ComonadZip w where
     czip :: f a -> f b -> f (a, b)
 

In response I added Control.Functor.Zip [Source] to my nascent rebundled version of category-extras, which was posted up to hackage earlier today.

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{-# OPTIONS -fglasgow-exts -fallow-undecidable-instances #-}
import Control.Monad
import Control.Monad.Identity
import Control.Arrow ((&&&), (***),(+++), (|||))
 

I want to talk about duality briefly. I don't want to go all the way to Filinski-style or Haskell is Not Not ML-style value/continuation duality, but I do want to poke a bit at the variant/record duality explified by the extensible cases used to handle variants in MLPolyR.

The need for extensible cases to handle open variants is part of the expression problem as stated by Wadler:

The goal is to define a data type by cases, where one can add new cases to the data type and new functions over the data type, without recompiling existing code, and while retaining static type safety.

One obvious trick is to use an extensible record of functions as a 'case' statement, with each field corresponding to one of the variants. To index into records you can use an extensible variant of functions to represent a field selection. In a purer form ala the Filinski or the Haskell is Not Not ML approach mentioned above, you can replace the word 'function' with continuation and everything works out.

Sweirstra recently tackled the extensible variant side of the equation with in Data types a la carte using the free monad coproduct to handle the 'variant' side of things, leaving the handling of cases to typeclasses, but we can see if we can go one better and just exploit the variant/record duality directly.

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No, this isn't some uplifting piece about deriving courage from sloth in the face of adversity.

What I want to talk about is monadic strength.

Transcribing the definition from category theory into Haskell we find that a strong monad is a functor such that there exists a morphism:

$t_{A, B} : M A * B -> M (A * B)$

with a couple of conditions on it that I'll get to later.

Currying that to get something that feels more natural to a Haskell programmer we get:

 
mstrength :: Monad m => m a -> b -> m (a,b)
 

Pardo provided us with a nice definition for that in Towards merging recursion and comonads:

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In case it wasn't obvious, I thought I should mention that Kabanov and Vene's dynamorphisms which optimize histomorphisms for dynamic programming can be expressed readily as chronomorphisms; they just use an anamorphism instead of a futumorphism.

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Back in the days of HYLO, it was common to write hylomorphisms with an additional natural transformation in them. Well, I was still coding in evil imperative languages back then, but I have it on reliable, er.. well supposition, that this is probably the case, or at least that they liked to do it back in the HYLO papers anyways.

Transcoding the category theory mumbo-jumbo into Haskell, so I can have a larger audience, we get the following 'frat combinator' -- you can blame Jules Bean from #haskell for that.

 
hyloEta :: Functor f =>
     (g b -> b) ->
     (forall a. f a -> g a) ->
     (a -> f a)
hyloEta phi eta psi = phi . eta . fmap (hyloEta phi eta psi) . psi
 

We placed eta in the middle of the argument list because it is evocative of the fact that it occurs between phi and psi, and because that seems to be where everyone else puts it.

Now, clearly, we could roll eta into phi and get the more traditional hylo where f = g. Less obviously we could roll it into psi because it is a natural transformation and so the following diagram commutes:

\bfig \square/>`>`>`>/[F(A)`F(B)`G(A)`G(B);F {[}\hspace{-0.8pt}{[}f, g{]}\hspace{-0.8pt}{]} `\eta_A`\eta_B`G {[}\hspace{-0.8pt}{[}f, g{]}\hspace{-0.8pt}{]}] \efig

This 'Hylo Shift' property (mentioned in that same paper) allows us to move the 'eta' term into the phi term or into the psi term as we see fit. Since we can move the eta term around and it adds no value to the combinator, it quietly returned to the void from whence it came. hyloEta offers us no more power than hylo, so out it goes.

So, if its dead, why talk about it?

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